Project Managers have many responsibilities. And one of the most difficult is Project Estimation: to predict what will happen in the future. Because projects are fraught with uncertainty. One of the most widely used approaches to improving estimation is the PERT Method.

And Project Sponsors dislike uncertainty. So they expect Project Managers to reduce it. So, they want you to manage project risks and estimate uncertain, future outcomes like:

- How much will this project cost?
- When will this project finish?

Today’s article is by __William W. Davis, MSPM, PMP__, a senior project manager, conference speaker, blogger, and the creator of __Statistical PERT__^{®}

Many project managers respond to these kinds of uncertainties by * predicting* the future. Project predictions are one way to estimate the future. Predictions are also called deterministic estimates. They give a single number to represent a single project uncertainty.

Think of a typical, traditional project. The project schedule sequences all the activities that the project team must complete. The project sponsor will want to know how long the project will take to finish, and how much the project will cost?

To answer those questions, the Project Manager will estimate the duration and cost of every activity on the project schedule. These are predictions. Using them, the project manager can add all the activity costs to find the total project cost. Then, using scheduling software, they can learn the project’s finish date.

Project managers use scheduling tools like Microsoft Project to build their project estimates. These tools can handle both costs and durations.

Unfortunately, there are several problems with predicting the future.

First, it isn’t clear to anyone who views a project prediction how likely that prediction is to occur. Is the prediction an *optimistic* view of the future? Or a *pessimistic* view? Is the prediction a *most likely outcome*, or the *expected* (average) outcome?

Most project uncertainties have more than one possible outcome. And project predictions are only one outcome from among many. For instance, let’s consider an activity called, *‘Write business requirements’*. A Project Manager might predict this will take 80 hours for the business analyst to complete.

But could this activity take less time than 80 hours? Could it take more than 80 hours? Eighty hours may be a *‘most likely’* outcome, but there are a range of possible outcomes. Some of them are both possible and probable, and some of are possible, but improbable.

Second, project predictions do not align expectations among stakeholders. No one knows how likely a project prediction is to occur. So, each person can attach their own meaning to what they see.

One person sees it and thinks, *‘That task will most likely finish in ten business days, but it might take longer.’ *

Another person sees the same task duration and thinks, *‘That task should take no more than ten business days to finish.’ *

Those are two very different perceptions! Project Managers work to align stakeholder expectations. But project predictions make that difficult, if not impossible.

Decision-making is an important topic to Online**PM**Courses. And project predictions can lead to poor business decisions by organizational leaders. If project predictions are too optimistic, projects will exceed their schedule and budgets. If project predictions are too pessimistic, projects will appear too long and too expensive.

How can you and your stakeholders know how reliable your project predictions are? It’s time to move to structure project estimation.

Single-point #estimates make for poor #project decision-making. Click To TweetThe United States Navy faced these same issues as you do, back in the 1950s. They were developing the nation’s first, submarine-launched, intercontinental ballistic missile. The Navy’s Polaris missile program knew that task duration has many possible outcomes. Some were probable and others not.

To create a schedule for the Polaris program, the Navy developed a new method. The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT Method) creates a risk-adjusted schedule. This considers both probable and improbable project outcomes for task duration.

PERT can also estimate project costs, in the same way. Sixty years later, the PERT formula is still widely used today, for project estimation.

Here is the PERT formula:

where, for a task duration uncertainty:

*Minimum*is the shortest duration possible*Most Likely*is the most probable duration. This is your best estimate of the duration. It would be your prediction, in a single-point project estimation.*Maximum*is the longest duration possible

You can use the same formula for costs.

*An Example*:

Writing business requirements for a project is most likely to take 80 hours to complete. But it could be finished in as little as 60 hours, and it might take up to 120 hours to complete. What would be the PERT estimate for this task?

The PERT estimate is the * expected value* for the task

In this case, it is 83.3 hours. By ‘* expected value*‘, we mean an estimate of the

Let’s look at the project cost using a PERT statistical probability curve.

In a skewed bell curve like this, the PERT Method average will usually be near the peak of the curve. But many other outcomes are possible between 60 and 120. The more asymmetric the curve; the further the expected value will lie from the most likely value.

There’s something that many project managers – even experienced ones – don’t realize. A PERT-created estimate is only about 50 per cent reliable.

This is not a flaw in the method. It is precisely the nature of robust project estimation. The best possible estimate must be one that is equally likely to be too high or too low.

Good #PERT #project #estimates are 50% reliable... by design Click To TweetSo, if you use the PERT Method well, to create task duration estimates on your project:

- Each task has about a 50 per cent chance of finishing on-time (or early), and
- Each task has about a 50 per cent chance of finishing later than expected.

The same is true of you use the PERT Method for project budget estimation.

You’re probably thinking, *‘I wouldn’t want to estimate my project tasks so they’re only 50% reliable!’ *

Here’s the rationale behind PERT estimation. In theory, for every task that finishes later than expected, there will be another task that should finish earlier than expected. These off-set one-another.

In statistics, it’s called the * ‘Central Limit Theorem’*. Late-finishing tasks offset early-finishing tasks, so the project ought to finish right on-time.

As a theory, that sounds great. But in the real world of project management, that never happens with PERT estimates.

Tasks very rarely finish earlier than expected. But they often finish later than expected. Oops.

#Project tasks very rarely finish earlier than expected Click To TweetSo, if you use the PERT Method to estimate task durations, you also need to create a schedule contingency. This is a buffer of time that you add to the project schedule. It acts to protect the project schedule. So, even if some tasks take longer than their PERT estimates, the project will still finish on-time.

In project estimation, allocate more contingency to the tasks that have most uncertainty. Schedule contingencies usually add between 5% and 15% extra time to a project’s total duration. The same is true of budget contingencies.

Part of your project estimation challenge is to add enough contingency but not too much. You need to reflect your assessment of the uncertainty of your project. So this means more contingency. But, at the same time, you need to avoid the charge of ‘padding your project’ from stakeholders.

The U.S. Navy doesn’t use the PERT Method any longer. And it’s not alone.

Instead, the Navy employs more sophisticated ways of creating project schedules. This includes using Monte Carlo simulation.

Monte Carlo simulation is a way to simulate the execution of a project thousands of times. This, of course, means using a computer. The name comes from the gambling tables that Mont Carlo is famous for. Each simulation assumes a new random set of outcomes for each duration or cost. The calculations to create the random outcomes follow a distribution of likelihoods. The curve in the image above shows a typical distribution.

So, computer simulate a project running thousands of times. This gives Project Managers a forecast for their project’s duration and cost. It also gives ranges, and likelihoods for each point in the range.

Think of weather forecasting. A weather forecaster may say there’s a 90% chance of rain tomorrow. But what if it doesn’t rain tomorrow? Does it mean the weather forecaster was wrong?

No. By saying there was a 90 per cent chance of rain tomorrow, the forecaster implied that there was a 10% chance that it will *not* rain tomorrow. Project forecasting acts in the same way.

Monte Carlo simulation is a more accurate way to estimate your project schedule and budget. But it’s also more time-consuming and expensive. And it takes special software and skill to use the software.

For these reasons, some Project Managers today only use it in limited contexts. More often, they prefer the simplicity of PERT to create risk-adjusted, task duration and cost estimates for their projects. Then, they add contingency to protect the project schedule from tasks that run late. And they add a cost contingency to protect their budget.

Hey, wait a minute! Aren’t PERT estimates single-value, deterministic estimates?

Yes, they are! PERT estimates are predictions. But they have several advantages that make their use attractive to project managers.

- First, a PERT estimate is an
**average**result, also called the*expected value*of an uncertainty. Project Managers should ensure their stakeholders understand this. - Second, average results are about 50% reliable. So, there is a good chance that a task may take longer and cost more than its PERT estimate. Therefore, project managers need to add a schedule and cost contingency to their projects. Again, you need to help your stakeholders understand this.
- Third, PERT estimates account for many possible outcomes. The PERT formula starts from a three-point estimate (minimum, most likely, maximum). But beneath this, the PERT Method implicitly uses a bell-shaped, probability curve to model uncertainty. So, the PERT formula generates a value that is an average result for the uncertainty.
- Fourth, PERT is easy to calculate and easy to understand. You can create a PERT estimate using pen and paper.
- Finally, the PERT Method is flexible. You can eight the terms to give greater or lesser prominence to the three parts of your base estimate.

If you are highly optimistic, you can make the multiplier for the minimum estimate higher. If you are highly confident of you Most Likely Estimate, you can increase that multiplier. Or you can reduce it if your confidence is low. And, if you want to present a cautious estimate, you can increase the multiplier on your maximum estimate.

Project estimation is a challenging exercise for even the most experienced project manager. So, it’s helpful to be familiar with an assortment of project estimation techniques and tools.

Project predictions are deterministic (single-value) estimates. They don’t convey a sense of risk or how reliable they are.

The PERT Method is an easy way to create an expected value that takes account of project uncertainty. But PERT estimates are still only about 50 per cent reliable.

So, when you use PERT for project estimation, be sure to include contingency as well. This creates an extra buffer in your project to protect its schedule and budget.

When you use The #PERT Method for #project #estimation, include contingency Click To TweetWhat is your experience with project estimation? Please share your thoughts in the comments below. As always, we’ll respond to every comment.

William W. Davis, MSPM, PMP is a senior project manager, conference speaker, blogger, and the creator of Statistical PERT® (SPERT®). Use Statistical PERT to quickly align expectations and improve executive decision-making. Statistical PERT is free to download, use, modify and redistribute. William's website is at Statistical PERT.

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