In this article, Donnie MacNicol introduces us to interpersonal skills for Project Managers. Donnie is one of the UK’s leading experts in developing project leadership capability. He uses the latest cultural, organizational, and behavioral thinking in his work.
Interpersonal skills are important in any line of work. And the delivery of projects is no different. Project leaders, whatever your role or level, are often at the sharp end. People expect you to deliver, even with multiple technical challenges and strained relationships. I am sure you have experienced situations like this. If you haven’t: you will.
Project leaders must find ways to:
…and you must do it fast.
As a project leader, you will be accountable, but you will have no authority. So this puts even more onus on your interpersonal skills. It’s no easy task when the people you need to engage with have other priorities. And besides, they may face a negative impact from the project or already be over-committed.Project Leaders are accountable, but without formal authority. Click To Tweet
Developing interpersonal skills often seems to be aa after-thought. Organizations often support their development only after you have mastered key technical skills. This is folly. You should start to develop your interpersonal skills from the start of your career. This’ll give you time to increase your understanding and test out different approaches. And, inevitably, you’ll learn from failure. It’s the best way. But hopefully, only from small failures!
Let’s look at how you can make a start in developing your critical interpersonal skills.
The starting point for any development is gaining a better understanding of yourself.
In a more and more collaborative world this is critical.
There are many widely-used profiling tools that can help. These enable individuals and teams to understand the range of personal styles. And, form that, to explore the position others may take.
These tools will help you understand two things:
This is key, whatever way you do it. Some of the most popular tools that provide such insights include:
Some people think these profiling tools ‘pigeon-hole’ them into a particular ‘type’. But these tools only suggest a preference for some behaviors over others.
The reality is that, as individuals, we have a range of responses to situations. Indeed, we can work across a spectrum of choices, often depending on the context.
Two crucial requirements for Project Leaders are to:
Also key is having a common language and structure. So you can discuss these differences with other people.
We use the iMA™ Diagnostic as it gives a simple way to distinguish between four different styles. These use colors to identify your engagement and communication preferences. The iMA™ initials indicate its use:
• identify your own or another person’s color style
• Modify your approach and style to suit the context
• Adapt as necessary to the response you receive
Identifying your iMA™ Color Style
We use a simple 10 question online diagnostic to identify your colour style, as shown in the figure.
Everyone is a mixture of all four but iMA™ aims to identify your preferred or ‘High’ color styles. Each has its own typical characteristics, behaviors, and preferences. People can also often relate to a secondary style, their ‘secondary preference’. You can get your colour style at any time at www.ima-pm.co.uk. After you have completed the diagnostic, ask yourself what your secondary style is.
We like the simplicity of iMA™. It means we can easily apply it in coaching, and team and leadership development. This speed lets us address issues quickly. Let’s look at some specific applications.
Strong relationships with stakeholders are often a defining characteristic of successful projects. Your interpersonal skills are at the heart of this priority. As a project leader, you must understand your stakeholder’s motivations and style. This is in turn affected by the stakeholder’s role on the project, and the culture of the organisation they work in.
But the different interpersonal styles of you and your stakeholders are also a factor. Here’s an example.
Let’s say the project leader is a High Red and the project sponsor a High Blue. Here, the project leader needs to understand that they can appear pushy and insensitive to the sponsor. This is especially so, if delivery of outcomes is all they focus on during conversations.
What about when you need to deal with a High Green? Other colors often feel that they cannot provide enough information. Without a lot of structured data, it’s hard to influence their opinion or decision.
When you encounter a new stakeholder, here are some of the questions you should ask yourself. These will help you engage with them more effectively, and gain a positive outcome.
Identify what changes you need to make and test out your modified approach.
Each color style has a particular favored leadership style, as identified below. This reflects the balance of interpersonal skills you deploy most comfortably.
If you identify your key leadership characteristics, you can reflect on your style and approach. As important; you can think about those of others around you, too.
You should consider how appropriate your interpersonal style is to the particular context. And then, you can consider how to modify your approach.
For example, how does a fast-paced delivery-focused phase differ from the early stages of a project? The former needs action and decisiveness. The latter needs your team to engage many stakeholders in a thoughtful and relaxed way.
Always ask yourself this. Will a different leadership style work better with this individual or team, in this project situation? If so, what steps will you take to change your approach?Always ask yourself: 'What #leadership style will work best?' Click To Tweet
iMA™ is particularly helpful with teams. You can use it when you want to understand the team dynamics. This comes from the different approaches, and the strengths and weaknesses of members.
It gives an objective and impersonal way for team members to discuss the impact of their style on the team. It is helpful in exploring relationships and the effects of the diversity of styles. And this will ultimately affect your team’s performance.
It is also helpful in exploring relationships with each other. These are, in turn, linked to the diversity of styles within your team. Profiling tools like iMA™ help team members discuss their differences. These are crucial becauseof the impact they have on relationships and project performance.
We often find teams biased towards a particular pairing of styles. For example, above or below the line, or to the left or right. As an extreme, we may find everyone has a single color style. This is not surprising as people tend to like people like themselves. Therefore leaders show unconscious bias in recruiting people like themselves. This impacts diversity of style. Thus it affects the decision-making process and decisions made; often negatively.
As an example, here is team profile from a client we worked with recently.
With such a high number of High Reds and High Yellows, things got done. But they were not always well planned or considered in advance. So the team’s effort could be wasted. The High Green and High Blue theam members felt they weren’t listened to. And this caused resentment.
Thinking about the team you work in, what is the profile? You can consider asking people to complete the profile – it only takes 3 minutes. Consider what the implications are what actions it requires from you.
We’ll use the example of project risk management. But we could equally apply this to any project process.
Planning for future eventualities is a core skill for a Project Manager. This includes identifying and managing risk – as either threats or opportunities. There are an infinite number of variations in how people perceive a risk. We each assess impact and probability differently. This affects how we identify appropriate courses of action.
So it is critical that a project leader appreciates these differences. You need to create a process that engages the different team members and uses this diversity. Here’s an example. When a High Green manages risk, they’ll take a structured and thought-through approach. Thesy will aim for rigor in the identification, recording, assessment, and ongoing management. This will be far more so than if another colour style had the responsibility.
When thinking about each process, we have found the following questions helpful. We recommend that individuals and whole teams reflect on them. Te responses are generally different for each iMA color style.
So, interpersonal skills are critical for project managers. As a result, gaining an insight into your own style can have a positive impact on project performance. And understanding the behavioral preferences of others will help you lead more effectively.
Invest some time to work on this, and we can guarantee that you will reap the rewards in the short and long term.
And finally, let us know what your thoughts are, and we will respond to every comment.
Some readers may recognize that the frameworks Donnie provides are comfortingly familiar. The iMA Colour Styles and iMA Leadership Styles are part of a long story of similar tools. Where you work, for example, you may come across the Merrill-Reid Social Styles, or the Alessandra model. Both of these provide very similar models of interpersonal styles. And you may be familiar with some of the many Situational Leadership models, like those of the Blanchard Corporation or Paul Hersey’s Center for Leadership Studies. Like Donnie, these suggest different styles of leadership work best in different situations.
Donnie MacNicol is an experienced project and program leader who is passionate about developing the leadership capabilities of individuals, teams and organisations in the private and public sector, to deliver success. Widely recognized as contributing to the ‘people and organizational side’ of project management thinking, Donnie is much in demand as a consultant, facilitator, lecturer, speaker, and writer.
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